Question Bank for Part 2 of RTR (A) 1

Question Bank for Part 2 of RTR (A)

 What is SELCAL? What are the advantages of SELCAL?

  1. Explain the basic working of a radio receiver.
  2. What is a Simple Communication System and Duplex Communication system?
  3. (a) What are the various elements of ILS?

(b)  What are locators and markers?

  1. What is a DVOR and how is it different from a VOR?
  2. Explain the various properties of the following frequency bands with their advantages and disadvantages :-
  • VHF
  • HF
  • VLF
  1. What is modulation and what are the types of modulation? How is modulation achieved?
  2. What is fading? Why is fading prevalent in HF communication?
  3. Calculation of frequency given the wavelength and vice-versa.
  4. Draw the block diagram of a Radio transmitter.
  5. What is MWARA and RDARA?
  6. What is a NOTAM?
  7. Explain types of NOTAMS.
  8. What are NOTAM codes?
  9. What is METAR?
  10. What is AIRREP?
  11. What are the types of position reports?
  12. What is a DISTRESS MESSAGE?
  13. What is an URGENCY MESSAGE?
  14. What is an aeronautical mobile service?
  15. What is an Aeronautical Broadcasting Service?
  16. Explain ATIS and Volmet broadcasts.
  17. What are the points to be borne in mind while using a microphone?
  18. What is cone of confusion over a VOR station?
  19. What are the types of VORs?
  20. What is coastal refraction in NDB?
  21. What is night effect in NDB?
  22. What is polarisation and how is it used?
  23. Explain the basic operating principle of a TV.
  24. What does strength 1,2,3,4,5 stand for in radio communication?
  25. What are the frequencies used in Radio telephony?
  26. What is the air to ground communication failure procedure in VMC & IMC?
  27. What is the format of a current weather meteorological message?
  28. What are the following frequencies?
  • 5/243 MHz
  • 2182 KHz
  • 8364 KHz
  • 500 KHz
  1. How will you give a distress/urgency message?
  2. How is “silence imposed” during handling of a distress message?
  3. How is a “distress traffic” cancelled?
  4. Meaning of QTE, QUJ, QDR, QDM, QDL.
  5. What are the class of bearings?
  6. Define and explain :-
  • Wave
  • Frequency
  • Wave length
  • Amptitude
  • Cycle (Hertz)
  • Period of a wave
  1. What is Ohms law?
  2. What is a condenser?
  3. What is a Faradays law?
  4. Explain the basic working of a battery.
  5. What is a Generator?
  6. What are ground waves?
  7. Explain Critical Angle, Skips distance, Sky waves, Space waves.
  8. What is critical frequency?
  9. What are the factors affecting the range of a NDB?
  10. What are the factors affecting accuracy of NDB transmissions?
  11. What is quadrantal error?
  12. What is the function of the sense Antenna in an ADF?
  13. Explain principle of a VOR and frequency of operation.
  14. Principle and frequency of DME.
  15. What is TACAN?
  16. What is the advantages of a DME locator over a VOR?
  17. What are the categories of ILS?
  18. Basic principle and working of a RADAR.
  19. Explain the basic working of a primary radar.
  20. Explain the basic working of a secondary radar.
  21. How is range calculated in a radar?
  22. Working of an airborne weather radar.
  23. Principle and basic working of a GPS.
  24. Explain the principle of a radar altimeter.
  25. What is an Antenna/Aerial? Explain its basic principle.
  26. What do you understand by Double Side band and Single Side Band?
  27. What is the difference between connecting batteries in parallel and in series?
  28. What are the types of electric currents?
  29. What do you know about (a) ITU (b) WPC (c)  ICAO (d)  DGCA
  30. What part does a microphone/headphone play in a communication system?How do you give a FIR position report?
  1. What are ICAO recommendations on use of language on Radiotelephony channels?
  2. Find out the current flowing in the circuits given below :-
  • What do you understand by :-

(a)     BR                        (b)     TSSA

(c)     HJ                         (d)     HX

(e)     HO                        (f)      ARP

(g)     HN                        (h)     YAY

  1. What do you understand by Pre-flight bulletin? What information does it contain?













88.  WHAT IS DOC 8400?

89.  ANNEXXE 1,2,10,11,12,13,14,15,18




  1. what is wheatstone bridge. It’s a instrument for measuring resistance. What is coil. It’s an insulated wire wound around a core for forming inductor or electromagnet.
  2. Superhetrodyne, a lot of question. Critical frequency.
  3. How is it obtained. What is oscillator. Types of oscillator. (The oscillator is an electronic device for creating voltages that can be made to surge back and forth at whatever frequency is desired. Master, Crystal, BFO, LFO)
  4. Fading, how do you overcome it.
  5. HF propagation. Ionosphere Layers, skip distance.
  6. How to arrange 100 ohms resistance to obtain 50 ohms , 200 ohms etc. series and parallel.
  7. ILS block diagram. Where is localizer, Glide path indicator, marker distances etc.
  8. Where will you find airport info. AIP vol 3 Aerodrome
  9. Which annexe is to be carried by pilot. Annexe 2 I think.
  10. What is metar and airmet.
  11. What is ganging (Ganging is placing two electric controls side by side in series. Used in superhetrodyne receiver for amplification.
  12. Prohibited area.. Give one example of Long and Lat.
  13. Difference between AIP, AIC. Definitions.
  14. What is feedback circuit. A circuit that feeds back some of the output to the input of a system.
  1. Advantage of AM and FM, cells and batteries lot of questions, relationship between temperature and resistance, is selcal code MICK correct, No I N O are not used, emission designator.
  2. What are different types of NOTAMS. Explain.
  1. Explain procedure for RECEIVER failure (not COMM failure).
  1. Where are the related rules found Ans: ICAO annex 10
  1. What is VOBG Ans: ICAO Loc Ident for Bangalore
  1. Is VOR terminal or enroute aid ? Ans: Both.
  1. Where are Airport info found ? Ans: AIP How many parts does AIP have ? Ans:3. GEN ENR AD
  1. principle and frequencies. ILS marker beacon, Capacitor in series, location identifier, Restricted, prohibited areas, VOLMET, atis, aip.
  1. What is capture area. Capture area, or more correctly effective aperture (Ae),  is a direct function of antenna gain and operating wavelength. Ae is determined by the voltage available across a load matching the antenna feed impedance for a given electromagnetic field strength density. In simple terms if the antenna is placed in a electromagnetic field of a certain intensity, a certain amount of power will appear in the load at the antenna terminals. The area of space around the antenna that provided this amount of power is the effective aperture.
  1. Electrolyte used in lead acid battery

 Sporadic E or Es is an unusual form of radio propagation using characteristics of the Earth’s ionosphere. Whereas most forms of skywave propagation use the normal and cyclic ionization properties of the ionosphere’s F region to refract (or “bend”) radio signals back toward the Earth’s surface, sporadic E propagation bounces signals off smaller “clouds” of unusually ionized atmospheric gas in the lower E region (located at altitudes of approx. 90 to 160 km). This occasionally allows for long-distance communication at VHF frequencies not usually well-suited to such communication.

Communication distances of 800–2200 km can occur using a single Es cloud. This variability in distance depends on a number of factors, including cloud height and density.

Sporadic E is an abnormal event, not the usual condition, but can happen at almost any time, it does, however, display seasonal patterns. Sporadic E activity peaks predictably in the summertime in both hemispheres.

  1. What is radio spectrum. Radio spectrum it is group of consecutive frequency assigned to particular user for a purpose with emission designator , It starts from vlf i.e. 3 k hz to ehf i.e. 300 G hz then describe equipment in each band.
  1. Frequency of micro wave.
  1. Types of electromagnetic waves. Radio waves, Micro waves, Infra red, light, ultra violet, X rays , Gamma rays. By propogation surface wave, sky waves, space wave.
  1. What are RVSM flight levels. Special VFR. Who grants it.
  1. Emission designator. Should be able to explain each symbol such as A1A, A3E, J3E, A9W etc
  1. What is RTR A. What are the restriction.
  1. NOTAMS, Series of NOTAMS and format.
  1. HF propagation, Day and night frequency, skip distance, dead space, critical angle, critical frequency.
  1. What is RADAR, Difference between primary radar and secondary radar. Advantage disadvantage of both.
  1. Types of message, priority indicator SS, DD, FF, GG
  1. Nautical mile, great circle, Rhumb line, Why nautical mile is used, because it is easier to calculate on chart. 1 nm is 1 minute.
  1. Definition of Location indicator. What does V stand for.
  1. Definitions transition layer, transition level.
  1. Difference between aircraft and aeroplane.
  1. Height, altitude, elevation,
  1. ICAO Annexe 1,2,6,10 , what is annexe for dangerous goods.
  1. Name and explain any 5 q codes. what is QFF, QDM, QTE.
  1. How many NDB needed for a fix,
  1. VOR working. Frequencies. 108-118 M Hz. Subcarrier 9960. Why is VOR and DME co located and not DME with anything else
  1. What is the need of selcal.
  1. What is the speed of electromagnetic wave, where is it fastest.
  1. ATIS freq of Delhi.
  1. What is the international emergency freq and the need of it.
  1. Wave length to freq numerical (3 cm)
  1. What is transistors.
  1. Distress frequency. 121.5, 243 M Hz, 2182, 4125 K Hz, 500 K Hz
  1. What are AERADIO, AIP and its Parts, NOTAM and its series.
  1. What is the syllabus. How have you prepared. Important documents DOC 4444, Radio Regulation, ICAO Annexe, DGCA CAR.
  1. ITU and its purpose. Radio Regulation and its volumes.
  1. RTG and RTR(A), Full form of RTR A Difference between telephony and telegraphy.
  1. ICAO and annexe, DGCA, AAI
  1. Requirement of radio, Radio net work RDARA, MAWARA
  1. Types of telecommunication services, Types of message and priority indicator, SS DD FF GG , what is flight safety message, Cancelling of message
  1. Communication procedure, Frequency to use, Communication failure, Reciever failure, Types of Call sign, callsign of controllers SMC – Ground VDF – homer etc, UTC
  1. Distress and urgency communication procedure . Distress frequency, ELT, Sattalite search rescue, LUT, MCC, RCC
  1. Aeronautical broadcast service, ATIS, VOLMET
  1. Radio navigation service Q Codes, accuracy
  1. Aeronautical information service. AIP, NOTAM, AIRAC, AIC, CAR, AERADIO,ADIZ, 8 ADIZ in india north, south, east, west, central , mumbai, delhi, kolkata Briefing procedure, FIR in India
  1. Why QNH is used in vicinity of ground
  1. Types of airspace, ATS route are class D airspace
  1. Airport lighting and marking
  1. Phrases, acknowledge, approved, cleared, maintain, report, request, say again, I say again, readback, contact, changing to, monitor, roger, break , break break , Wilco word twice,
  1. Abbreviation, hj, h24, . Pronouncing Alphabets, calling numbers.
  1. Nautical mile, great circle, Rhumb line,
  1. Definition, Aeronautical fixed service, Aeronautical mobile, Aeronautical broadcasting service, Aeronautical radio navigation service, Aeronautical fixed station Aircraft station, air to ground, air ground, Aerodrome elevation, Aerodrome reference point, Airmet , Sigmet, Air report, Air taxi, ATC c;earence ATC instruction, ATIS, DA/DH, MDA, Estimated Approach time, Estimated off block time, Estimated time of arrival, Expected approach time, Difference between Heading and track, Altitude , Height, elevation, Flight Level, Transition altitude, Transition Layer, Transition Level, Rapid taxi way, ATS, What are air traffic services ,ATS routes, Maneuvering area, movement area, prohibited area, restricted area, control area, control zone, aeorplane, aircraft, aerodrome, airport, simplex, duplex, Is mobile duplex Blind transmission Primary frequency, Secondary frequency, Location indicator Notam, AIP, CAR, Preflight Bulletin PIB. TORA, TODA
  1. 6 Prohibited areas. Where is it given.
  1. Rules of air, Flight Plan, Flight plan filling in india, One hour on land 10 minutes in Air, V for VFR, I for IFR etc M for mach number , F for FL
  1. VMC, VFR, Special VFR, IFR , Semi circular FL, RVSM FL, Light signal, Ground Signal, Light displayed by aircraft. Why Red on port
  1. Electricity: Ohm’s Law, Ampere, Watt, Volt, Resistance, BB ROY GB VGW, adding in series parallel, Cells and battery, Inductor, Capacitor, Generator, Alternator, Motor,  Transformer, Why domestic supply is 50 Hz and aircraft supply 400 Hz, Ohm’s law for ac, Impedence, How to calculate Impedence, LCR circuit diagram. Frequency in ac circuit, resonance. Resonance is 1/ 2 pai under root L C Krichoffs law, Diode, Triode.
  1. Symbols and Diagram of cell, resistance, inductor, capacitor, LCR circuit, transformer , transistor, PNP ; NPN, diode, triode, Transmitter, TFR (tuned frequency receiver), Super hetrodyne reciever,. Numericals based on resistance , capacitor etc.
  1. What is diode and triod. CRT, Gas used in CRT.
  1. Radio theory: Atomic structure, Valence shell, how is ac produced, What is oscillator, magnetron, cyclotron, what is electromagnetic wave, Frequency spectrum VLF to EHF and equipments in each band. Phase difference, polarization, Speed of light, refractive index. Speed of light does it vary yes it is more in vacuum and it is slowed down in transparent media like air and water the ratio by which it is slowed is refractive index. The exact speed is 299792458 m/sec
  1. Modulation, types of modulation, What is frequency modulation modulation depth. Diagram, What is side band.
  1. Emission designator of NDB, RTF, VOR, ILS DME Emmision designator what is 2 in A2A J3E Suppressed carier used in HF communications as intelligence is contained in side bands only single side band is sent to economise on band width
  2. Amplitude, wave length, frequency relationship, numericals based on it
  1. Propogation of radio wave : Surface wave, Sky wave, Space wave, Ground wave, duct propogation.
  1. H F PROPOGATION Sky wave D, E, F. Layer, how are D E F layers created . Created by sun rays breaking ozone ions Skip distance, Dead Space, Critical angle, critical frequency, Day and night frequency, Range of VHF and HF
  1. Block diagram of Transmitter, Reciever, Superhetrodyne receiver. Qualities in a receiver. Triple S F, Switches in a receiver Volume control, BFO, AVC, Squelch, Noise limiter How do you tune a transmitter We use a variable air capacitor for tuning. Synthesizers are also used.
  1. Microphone, Types of microphone, speaker
  1. Fading, Selective fading. How to overcome it.
  1. What is antennae, types of antennae, whip antennae, wire antennae, ferret rod antennae, Loop antennae, sense antennae, parabolic antennae, Log periodic antennae. ifference between antannae , ariel . Antannae is solid metal structure , ariel is wire based , ATU, Antannae length for 30 M Hz, Factors affecting strength of signal amplification and design and orientation of antennae, Self radiating mast is used for transmitting long and medium wave in which mast itself acts as an antennae.
  1. Atannae gain is ratio between radiation intensity in a given direction and that produced by an ideal antannae which transmits in all direction. What is loop antannae with two arms used in ADF
  1. EIRP stands for effective isotropically radiated power. it is the amount of power that a theoretical isotropical antennae would emit to produce peak power in direction of maximum antannae gain. EIRP = power at transmitter – cable loss + antannae gain
  1. NDB working and limitation, Night effect
  1. VOR working , VOR, frequency of reference signal and variable signal, limitation of VOR , Which has got more range VOR or NDB. Difference between VOR and NDB
  1. ILS working and diagram Drawing ILS diagram Category of operation, Back course, Glide slope off the air non precission approach Localizer off the air non instrument approach
  1. GPS
  1. Linear , Non Linear transmission
  1. Radar principal, Types of radar and their power, Types of Radar SSR , ASSR, MSSR, PAR
  1. Primary and Secondary radar, AWR, DME, SSR, TCAS, GPWS
  1. Why tv antannae is bigger than vhf antannae more antannae gain.
  1. How does tv work
  1. What is radio spectrum. Radio spectrum it is group of consecutive frequency assigned to particular user for a purpose with emission designator , It starts from vlf i.e. 3 k hz to ehf i.e. 300 G hz then describe equipment in each band.
  1. Latitude and longitude of india extent
  1. Relationship between watt and decibel dB = 10 Log watt , 100 watt is 20 dB \
  1. Sigmet, PAPI, VASI, Elde’s lamp signal . Steady red etc
  1. What is electro magnetic wave and its use. Microwave for telecom , infra red for remote control , U V for strerlization, x ray gamma ray in medical,
  1. Diagram of runway, Markings etc, Runways lighting refer cd given to you. Width of stripes 3 feet.
  1. CDMA, GSM full form.


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