The International Telecommunication Union (ITU), originally the International Telegraph Union (French: Union Internationale des Télécommunications), is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies.
The ITU coordinates the shared global use of the radio spectrum, promotes international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits, works to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world, and assists in the development and coordination of worldwide technical standards. The ITU is active in areas including broadband Internet, latest-generation wireless technologies, aeronautical and maritime navigation, radio astronomy, satellite-based meteorology, convergence in fixed-mobile phone, Internet access, data, voice, TV broadcasting, and next-generation networks.
ITU also organizes worldwide and regional exhibitions and forums, such as ITU TELECOM WORLD, bringing together representatives of government and the telecommunications and ICT industry to exchange ideas, knowledge and technology.
ITU, based in Geneva, Switzerland, is a member of the United Nations development group. ITU has been an intergovernmental public- private partnership organization since its inception. Its membership includes 193 Member States and around 700 public and private sector companies as well as international and regional telecommunication entities, known as Sector Members and Associates, which undertake most of the work of each Sector.
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is an agency of the United Nations (UN) whose purpose is to coordinate telecommunication operations and services throughout the world. Originally founded in 1865, as the International Telegraph Union, the ITU is the oldest existing international organization. ITU headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland.
The ITU consists of three sectors:
- Radiocommunication (ITU-R) — ensures optimal, fair and rational use of the (RF) spectrum
- Telecommunication Standardization ( ITU-T) — formulates recommendations for standardizing telecommunication operations worldwide
- Telecommunication Development (ITU-D) — assists countries in developing and maintaining internal communication operations
The ITU sets and publishes regulations and standards relevant to electronic communication and broadcasting technologies of all kinds including radio, television, satellite, telephone and the internet . The organization conducts working parties, study groups and meetings to address current and future issues and to resolve disputes. The ITU organizes and holds an exhibition and forum known as the Global TELECOM every four years.
Another important aspect of the ITU’s mandate is helping emerging countries to establish and develop telecommunication systems of their own. Although the recommendations of the ITU are non-binding, most countries adhere to them in the interest of maintaining an effective international electronic communication environment.
The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is a UN specialized agency, created in 1944 upon the signing of the Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention).
ICAO works with the Convention’s 191 Member States and global aviation organizations to develop international Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) which States reference when developing their legally-enforceable national civil aviation regulations.
There are currently over 10,000 SARPs reflected in the 19 Annexes to the Chicago Convention which ICAO oversees, and it is through these provisions – as well as ICAO’s complementary policy, auditing and capacity-building efforts – that today’s global air transport network is able to operate close to 100,000 daily flights, safely, efficiently and securely in every region of the world.
Convention on International Civil Aviation (also known as Chicago Convention), was signed on 7 December 1944 by 52 States. Pending ratification of the Convention by 26 States, the Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization (PICAO) was established. It functioned from 6 June 1945 until 4 April 1947. By 5 March 1947 the 26th ratification was received. ICAO came into being on 4 April 1947. In October of the same year, ICAO became a specialized agency of the United Nations linked to Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).
The Convention on International Civil Aviation set forth the purpose of ICAO:
“WHEREAS the future development of international civil aviation can greatly help to create and preserve friendship and understanding among the nations and peoples of the world, yet its abuse can become a threat to the general security; and
WHEREAS it is desirable to avoid friction and to promote that co-operation between nations and peoples upon which the peace of the world depends;
THEREFORE, the undersigned governments having agreed on certain principles and arrangements in order that international civil aviation may be developed in a safe and orderly manner and that international air transport services may be established on the basis of equality of opportunity and operated soundly and economically;
Have accordingly concluded this Convention to that end.”
|Annex 1||Personnel Licensing|
|Annex 2||Rules of the Air|
|Annex 3||Meteorological Service for International Air Navigation|
|Annex 4||Aeronautical Charts|
|Annex 5||Units of Measurement to be Used in Air and Ground Operations|
|Annex 6 Part I||International Commercial Air Transport – Aeroplanes|
|Annex 6 Part II||International General Aviation – Aeroplanes|
|Annex 6 Part III||International Operations – Helicopters|
|Annex 7||Aircraft Nationality and Registration Marks|
|Annex 8||Airworthiness of Aircraft|
|Annex 10 Vol I||Radio Navigation Aids|
|Annex 10 Vol II||Communications Procedures|
|Annex 10 Vol III||Communications Systems|
|Annex 10 Vol IV||Surveillance Radar and Collision Avoidance Systems|
|Annex 10 Vol V||Aeronautical Radio Frequency Spectrum Utilization|
|Annex 11||Air Traffic Services|
|Annex 12||Search and Rescue|
|Annex 13||Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation|
|Annex 14 Volume I||Aerodrome Design and Construction|
|Annex 14 Volume II||Heliports|
|Annex 15||Aeronautical Information Services|
|Annex 16 Volume 1||Environmental Protection – Aircraft Noise|
|Annex 16 Volume II||Environmental Protection – Aircraft Engine Emissions|
|Annex 18||The Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air|
|Annex 19||Safety Management|
|Document 4444 differences||Air Traffic Management (PANS–ATM)|
The Wireless Planning & Coordination Wing (WPC) is a branch of Department of telecommunications coming under the Ministry of Communications and Information Technologyu of the Government of India. The department is responsible for issuing amateur radio licenses and allotting the frequency spectrum and monitoring the frequency spectrum. The WPC is headquartered in New Delhi and has regional branches in Mumbai, Chennai Kolkata and Guwahati. WPC is divided into major sections like Licensing and Regulation (LR), New Technology Group (NTG) and Standing Advisory Committee on Radio Frequency Allocation (SACFA). SACFA makes the recommendations on major frequency allocation issues, formulation of the frequency allocation plan, making recommendations on the various issues related to International Telecom Union (ITU), to sort out problems referred to the committee by various wireless users, Siting clearance of all wireless installations in the country etc.
Technical Group ‘A’ officers manning this organisation comes under cadre of Indian Radio Regulatory Services. Wireless Adviser of India is highest officer in the hierarchy, who report to Member(Technology) of Telecom Commission of India under Department of Telecommunications.
|Directorate General of Civil Aviation is an attached office of the Ministry of Civil Aviation.The Directorate General of Civil Aviation is the regulatory body in the field of Civil Aviation primarily dealing with safety issues. It is responsible for regulation of air transport services to/from/within India and for enforcement of civil air regulations, air safety and airworthiness standards. It also co-ordinates all regulatory functionswith International Civil Aviation Organisation.The headquarters are located in New Delhi with regional offices in the various parts of India.
There are 14 (fourteen) Regional Airworthiness Offices located at Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Trivandrum, Bhopal, Lucknow, Patna, Bhubaneshwar, Kanpur, Guwahati and Patiala.
Apart from the Regional Airworthiness Offices, there are 5 (five) Regional Air Safety offices located at Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata and Hyderabad, the Regional Research and Development Office located at Bangalore and the Gliding Centre at Pune.
India is participated in ICAO by the Representative of India.
Airports Authority of India (AAI) was constituted by an Act of Parliament and came into being on 1st April 1995 by merging erstwhile National Airports Authority and International Airports Authority of India. The merger brought into existence a single Organization entrusted with the responsibility of creating, upgrading, maintaining and managing civil aviation infrastructure both on the ground and air space in the country.
AAI manages 125 airports, which include 18 International Airport, 07 Customs Airports, 78 Domestic Airports and 26 Civil Enclaves at Defense airfields. AAI provides air navigation services over 2.8 million square nautical miles of air space.
The main functions of AAI inter-alia include construction, modification & management of passenger terminals, development & management of cargo terminals, development & maintenance of apron infrastructure including runways, parallel taxiways, apron etc., Provision of Communication, Navigation and Surveillance which includes provision of DVOR / DME, ILS, ATC radars, visual aids etc., provision of air traffic services, provision of passenger facilities and related amenities at its terminals thereby ensuring safe and secure operations of aircraft, passenger and cargo in the country.