Flight Information Publication (FLIP) Made Easy | Navigation Notes


FLIP READY RECKONER For RTR (A), Regulations and Navigation Paper (Navigation Notes)

 

FLIP  is IAP 3002 B (both part I and part II).
Part I deals with planning and part II deals with enroute.
Part I revised every 3-5 yrs and part II revised every year.
Part I contains information and procedures of semi-permanent nature.
For subsonic levels SIGMET information must include
  • Active Thunderstorm Area, Tropical Revolving Storm, Severe Line      Squall, Heavy Hail, Severe Turbulence, Severe Icing, Mountain Waves, Widespread Sandstorm/ Dust Storm
For transonic and supersonic levels
  • Turbulence, CB’s, hail, volcanic ash.
Wake turbulence of ac
  • Light – Max certified T/O weight 7000 kgs or less
  • Medium – Max certified T/O weight more than 7000 kgs and less than 1,36,000 kgs
  • Heavy – Max certified T/O weight =or > than 1,36,000 kgs
 Minimum height transition altitude is 1500 feet above airfield elevation.
Transition level is lowest flight level above transition altitude.
Transition layer – airspace between transition altitude and transition level.
ALTIMETER SETTING PROCEDURE
·         When at or below T. Alt. report position as altitude or height depending on QNH or QFE set on altimeter.
·         When at or above T. level report position as flight level and set altimeter at 1013.2 mb
·         During climb after T/O use QNH/ QFE till T. Alt, thereafter use QNE(1013.25mb)
·         During decent for landing, use flight level till transition level, thereafter use QNH or QFE
·         When climbing through T. layer report position as flight level and when descending through it report as altitude.
Separations In Flight.
·         Class A and B airspace – all flights vertical and horizontal separation provided.
·         Class C, D, E – between IFR flights
  ****Class C – between IFR flights and VFR flights
  ****Shall be provided between IFR and Special VFR flights.
  ****Between Special VFR flights.
In India class D airspace and pts **** shall be applicable.
The above conditions are not applicable during day as visual clearance can be maintained and VMC is maintained
The vertical separation minima shall be 1000’ below FL 290 and 2000’ above FL 290
Track Separation In Flight
  •  VOR – 15 deg at 15 NMs/ 28 Kms
  •  NDB – 30 deg at 15 NMs/ 28 Kms
  • DR pos’n – 45 deg at 15 NMs/ 28 Kms from the point of intersection of the tracks, this point determined visually or by nav aids.
  • Long separation can be achieved by – different departure time, lose time to arrive over a nav aid or hold over a nav aid for specified time.
ON SAME TRACK
  • Normal case – 15 min
  • If nav aids permit frequent position and speed determination – 10 min
  • If previous ac speed 20 kts/ 37kmph or more than rear ac – 05 min
  • If previous ac speed 40 kts/ 74kmph or more than rear ac – 03 min
 
ON CROSSING TRACKS
  • Normal case – 15 min
  • If nav aids permit frequent position and speed determination – 10 min
 
CLIMBING OR DESCENDING LONGITUDINAL SEPERATION
 
On same track
  • Crossing tracks – 15 minutes between both ac
  • 10 min – The separation authorized and nav aids permit frequent determination of position and speed.
  • 05 min – provided level change commenced within 10 mins of 2nd ac reporting over exact point.
 
On crossing tracks
  • Normal case – 15 min
  • If nav aids permit frequent position and speed determination – 10 min
  • On reciprocal tracks if lateral separation is not provided, then vertical separation of 10 min to be provided.
 
LONGITUDINAL SEPERATION BASED ON DME DISTANCE
  • 20NMs/ 37 kms – Normal case
  • 10NMs/ 20 kms – in case previous ac has 20 kts faster speed
 
CLIMBING OR DESCENDING ON SAME TRACK
  • 19 kms/ 10Nms – no vertical separation, uses DME stations
 
BASED ON MACH NUMBER
  • Nothing given then 10 mins
  • If previous ac speed more by .02 mach then 09 mins
  • If previous ac speed more by .03 mach then 08 mins
  • If previous ac speed more by .04 mach then 07 mins
  • If previous ac speed more by .05 mach then 06 mins
  • If previous ac speed more by .06 mach then 05 mins
 
QUADRANTAL LEVELS
  • 000 – 089 Deg First Quadrant ———  Odd Thousands i.e. 030, 050, 070, 090 etc
  • 090 – 179 deg Second quadrant ——  Odd thousands + 500’ i.e. 035, 055, 075 etc
  • 180 — 269 deg Third quadrant ———- Even thousands i.e. 040, 060, 080,  etc
  • 270 – 359 deg Fourth quadrant ———Odd thousands + 500’ i.e. 065, 085, 105 etc
All these are magnetic tracks and NOT (R) NOT headings/ course
Lowest level is 030 and highest level is 140
FL 140 – 150 is Buffer level
Implies It Starts In First Quadrant And Ends In Third Quadrant
 
 
SEMICIRCULAR SYSTEM

000 -179 DEG

180 – 359 DEG

IFR VFR IFR VFR
150 155 160 165
170 175 180 185 and so on
Till FL 290*** 300******* 310******* 320*****
330 340 350 360
450 460 Buffer Level  FL 460 to 470 480
500 520
540 560 till FL 600
Above FL 480 VFR flights for IAF ac only
Above FL 460 again Quadrantal system is followed
SPECIAL VFR CONDITIONS
  • Needs approval of the Unit providing approach control, traffic permitting.
  • Should be handled individually by approach control
  • Separation minima be followed between IFR and special VFR flights, as also between Special VFR flights.
  • Ground visibility not less than 1500 mts
  • Only in case of Class E airspace SVFR flights can operate, whether or not they have a functional radio receiver.
  • Other than Class E airspace, the pilot has agreed to guard the comm’n frequency with a serviceable radio receiver, and in Class E airspace adequate arrangements made for the flight termination.
NOTAM – Notices to airmen
Notices containing information concerning the establishment, condition or change in any aeronautical facility, procedure, hazard, the timely knowledge of which is essential to personnel concerned with conduct of flying operations.
TYPES
  • NOTAM (N) – New NOTAM
  • NOTAM (R) – Replaces a previous NOTAM
  • NOTAM (C) – Cancels a NOTAM
  • NOTAM (S) – SNOWTAM (Used when the hazard of icing, slush, snowfall or any weather phenomenon is likely to affect the maneuvering area in the aerodrome.
In NOTAM format IFR traffic indicated by I, VFR traffic by V, VFR/ IFR traffic by IV
  • In case N is used then it is for immediate attention of ac operators
  • In case B is used then it is for pre-flight bulletins
  • “O” would stand for operationally significant for IFR flights
  • For miscellaneous “M” is entered
For scope of the NOTAM a stands for Aerodrome, E stands for Enroute, W stands for navigational warning
  • LOWER signifies lower limit of affected area. Default value is 000 when limit not defined
  • UPPER signifies upper limit of affected area. Default value is 999 when limit not defined
  • PERM in a NOTAM is used to denote a permanent change, in case uncertain then approx duration be indicated followed by EST, UFN  means until further notice
  • AGA (L) – means NOTAM concerned with Airfield Lighting Facilities
  • AGA (M) – means NOTAM concerned with Movement And Ldg Area
  • AGA (F) – means NOTAM concerned with Facilities And Services
  • COM (C) – NOTAM concerned with Comm’n And Radar Facilities
  • COM (I) – NOTAM concerned with ILS and MLS
  • COM (N) – NOTAM concerned with Terminal And Enroute Nav Facilities
  • RAC (A) – NOTAM concerned with Airspace management
  • RAC (S) – NOTAM concerned with Air traffic and VOLMET services
  • RAC (P) – NOTAM concerned with Air Traffic procedures
  • NOTAM concerned with Movement And Ldg Area
  • NOTAM concerned with Movement And Ldg Area
  • All warnings are indicated by either R or W
In NOTAM 4th and 5th letters indicate:- Availability – A, Changes – C, Hazard conditions – H, limitations – L
Direct approach can be carried out in case aligned within 30 deg of approach dir’n
Minimum visibility required when no aids available is 1000 mts/ 1 km
Rating Visibility No Sig Ceiling
MGreen 1000 mts 350 feet 700 feet
Green 1500 mts 500 feet 700 feet
White 2000 mts 700 feet 1000 feet
Uncat 2500 mts 1000 feet 1500 feet
v   Significant clouding means any cloud affecting the circle to land and/or approach and landing of an aircraft.
 Significant clouding means any cloud affecting the circle to land and/or approach and landing of an aircraft.
v   In case the approach lighting system is not available then the RVR/ Vis minima using the R/W approach aid will be the same for airfield approach aid.
v   If in an ILS approach glide slope not available then descent minima is restricted to MDA/ MDH
v   Straight in landing can be executed if R/W aligned within +- 30 deg of approach direction with ATC permission.
v   If RVR and Vis are different then RVR shall take preference when using a runway approach aid.
HOLDING PATTERNS
Bank angle 25 deg or 3 deg/ sec whichever requires lesser bank.
Outbound timing begins over/ abeam  the fix/ nav aid  whichever is later
Holding Speeds for HOLD
  • Upto 14000 feet/ 4250 mts – 230kts/ 280 kts/ 315 kts depending on turbulence
  • Zone of flexibility to enter is about 5 deg
VASIS AND AVASIS
  • VASIS – in clear weather the range shall be min 7.4 Kms/ 4NMs
  • 2 bar VASI and AVASIS – eye to wheel height not exceeding 4.5 mts/ 15 feet
  • 3 bar VASI and AVASIS – eye to wheel height not exceeding 16 mts/ 52 feet
   VASIS
  • 12 light units in 2 wing pairs with three light unit in each wing bar
AVASIS will consist of 4/6/8 light units. Can be placed on one side or symmetrically about the R/W center line.
  3 bar VASIS and AVASIS
  • 2 bar VASI + one pair additional in upwind direction, which has two lights in each bar. i.e. 04 lights extra. The 3 bar AVASI will consist of 2/3 light units + one or a pair of additional unit with at least 2 lights in each wing bar.
  • Red undershooting for that place
  • White overshooting for that place
  • If less than 15 feet land between 1st and 2nd markings—-as you see red, red, white
  • If more than 15 feet and less than 52 feet land between 2nd and 3rd –  as you see red, white, white
   
  FLIGHT PLAN
  • Flt Plan to be submitted at least 60 min before departure and in case passed in air then 10 min before entering  control area/ advisory area or crossing airway or advisory route.
  • Insert I if IFR, V if VFR , Y if IFR first, Z if VFR first
  • Insert S – Scheduled air service, N – non scheduled air service, G – general aviation, M – military, X – any other category.
  • Insert N – no Commn/ Nav/ Approach aid carried or it is U/S
                     S – if standard equipment carried (VHF, ADF, VOR, ILS)
D for DME F for ADF H For HF R/T
I for Inertial Nav L for ILS M for Omega
T for TACAN U for UHF R/T V for VHF
  • Speed expressed as K0090 means 90 kmph/ K0900 means 900 kmph
  • If in knots then N0180 means 180 kts/ 0610 means 610 kts
  • If in mach number then M063 means 0.63 mach
  • Cruising level if Flight Level then F350 means FL 350
  • In feet then A0300 means 30000 feet
  • If in meters then S1030 means 10300 mts
  • If in meters then M0940 means 9400 mts
  • If changing flight rules then whichever later enter that, say changing form IFR to VFR then enter VFR and vice versa.
Guwahati FIR limits are from Ground level to FL 270(excluding)
  • 05 FIR’s and 08 ADIZ’s
  • In Air Force the ADDC’s perform the function of ADIA’s
  • ADC is valid for 30 mins after ETD.
  • Whenever civil flights/ DGCA flights originate from/ terminate from an AF base then an AOR signal/ blanket clearance is imperative from Air HQs.
  • If departure delayed by more than 30 mins then fresh ADC required.
No ADC is required when within control zone/ vicinity of airfield. 1000 feet vertically and 5 NMs distance from center of runway.
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
  • VHF – 121.5 mhz/ UHF – 243.0 mhz/ HF – 500/ 2182/ 8364 Khz
  • SOS indicated by . . . – – – . . .
  • Urgency can be indicated by repeated switching On and OFF of landing lights and/or Nav lights
  • Radio silence can be imposed by transmitting “STOP TRANSMITTING MAYDAY” and resume normal by transmitting “DISTRESS TRAFFIC ENDED”
   
Radio Commn Failure procedures
  • SELCAL satisfies the requirement of maintaining a listening watch on the frequency.
If R/T failure in VMC then
  • Continue to fly in VMC
  • Land at nearest airfield/ aerodrome
  • Report  arrival by fastest means to appropriate ATC unit
If in IMC then,
  • Maintain last assigned speed and height till 20 mins from where you should have reported over the nav aid, then adjust level and speed according to filed flt plan
  • Proceed according to current flt plan to the designated nav aid and hold over              it till commencement of descent.
  • Commence descent as close to EAT last received or acknowledged, or as close to ETA filed in the flt plan.
  • Complete a normal instrument approach for the nav aid
  • Land within thirty minutes after ETA or last acknowledged EAT, whichever is later.
  • Blind transmissions should be made twice on the same frequency and then change over to the new frequency announcing the same.
  • Should transmit by prefixing “TRANSMITTING BLIND”
  • In case of receiver failure should transmit by prefixing “TRANSMITTING BLIND DUE TO RECIEVER FAILURE”
   
INTERCEPTION
When intercepted shall establish contact on 121.5/ 243 MHz or select code 7700 on SSR
Search and Rescue
·         Five search and rescue regions have been established coinciding with FIR boundaries
·         Rescue sub centers are at Cochin and Udhampur
·         In India FCC’s act as RCC’s in addition to other functions.
Satellite Rescue
  • Uses six satellites in polar orbits at right angles to equator
  • Three called SARSAT and other Three called COPRAS
  • These pickup signals from locator beacons and relay to nearest Local User Terminal (LUTs) located at Bangalore and Lucknow
  • The LUT then transmits the position of ac with an accuracy of +- 5 NMs to MCC co-located with LUT Bangalore. The MCC passes it to respective FIR by TELEX.
  • If on 121.5 and 243 then ac and ship cannot be distinguished but if on 406 then it can distinguish as well as identify a particular type of ship or ac.
  SEARCH AND RESCUE SIGNALS
Must be at least 2.5 mts long/ 8 feet wide
  • V – Require assistance, X – Require medical assistance, N – Negative/ No,
  • Y – Yes/ affirmative, Arrow means proceeding in direction indicated
  • LLL – operation completed,       L L – we have found some personnel
  • + + – we have found all personnel, X X – unable to continue returning to base
  • NN – nothing found will continue to search, Two arrows one behind the other means info received that aircraft is in this direction.
  METEOROLOGY
  • The evaluation of one or more met elements is called as observation
Met sections
  • MWO – Met Watch Office (civil). 24 hrs current and forecasting watch. Provides SIGMET information also
  • Civ I – Class I Met office (Civ) 24 hrs current and forecasting watch.
  • Civ II – Class II Met office (Civ) maintains 24HRS current weather watch and issues forecast during specified timings.
o   Civ III – weather watch during specified timings and issues forecast from associated forecasting offices
Air Force Met Sections
  • Class A – 24 hrs current weather and forecasting watch
  • Class B – 24 hrs current weather watch and 18 hrs forecasting watch
  • Class B – 24 hrs current weather watch and 12 hrs forecasting watch
  • Class Sp – 12 hrs current weather watch and limited forecasting watch
  • Class CW – maintains dawn to dusk current weather watch
 
Warning Times For Preparation Of Met Information
  • Met office with 24 Hrs forecasting watch – 500 NMs or less – 1 hr
                                                                               500 – 1000 NMs – 3 hrs
                                                                               more than 1000 NMs – 6 hrs
  • If not having 24 hrs forecasting watch then
                                  During watch hrs – 500 miles or less – 3 hrs
                               More than 500 NMs – 6 hrs
Types Of Representation
      Less than 500 miles –  T-3
      500 – 1600 NMs – T-4 and T-10/ T-10a
      More than 1600 NMs – T-4, T-10, synoptic situation and upper level charts
METAR – Aviation Routine Weather Report
SPECIAL – Aviation Special Report
SPECI – Aviation Selected Special Weather Report
TAF – Terminal Aerodrome Forecast
SIGMET – Significant Met information
AIREPs are to be originated at hourly intervals in VMC, 30 mins in IMC and at Night, On entering and leaving an FIR, Any other point indicated by met section or encountering severe weather.
In weather reports max wind gusty wind speed will only be reported if change is more than 10 kts.
CAVOK means Vis 5000 mts, No clud below 5000 feet or below the highest minimum sector altitude whichever is greater, No CB, Precipitation, Thunderstorm, Shallow Fog or Drifting Snow.
In Air Force ALLOK is used when Vis is 10 Kms or more and the sky is clear
If Vis reported as 9999 then it means Vis is 10 Kms or more.
RVR is reported with a group if Vis is less than 2000 mts. It may also indicate direction along the RVR reported R/W.
  Codes used to report weather
BR – Mist, DZ – Drizzle, FG – Fog, MI- shallow Fog, FU –Smoke, BC – fog patches, PE – Ice pellets, XX – heavy
CBs will be reported as ISOL, OCNL, FREQ, EMBD.
QNH will always be rounded off to the lower whole figure
  In METAR 10 / 07 means temperature is 10 deg and dew point is 7 deg.
  CHANGE GROUPS
GRADU – change expected at approx constant rate throughout the forecast period or specified part thereof.
RAPID – change expected to last for a period less than ½ hour
TEMPO – change expected to last for period less than 1 hour and change takes place almost throughout the period of forecast
INTER – changes occur frequently for short periods of time  almost throughout the specified period between those specified in the part of the forecast preceding and after the group.
PROB – used followed by probability by percentage  10, 20, 30 etc
TREND – appended to end of METAR, always preceded by a change indicator e.g. GRADU, RAPID, TEMPO, INTER or NOSIG etc. valid for 02 hrs from time of issue of METAR.
SIGMET – stands for Significant Met Information, issued by Met Watch Offices, provides information regarding (HIMCLAD)  – Hail, Icing, Mountain waves, Cyclone, Line squall, Active thunderstorm, dust/ sandstorm.
Information regarding the breakdown / suspension/ overhauling of weather radars will be notified by concerned Met Office by a NOTAM. These will not be operated if no weather development is expected, fair weather periods.
Cyclone Surveillance radars – 10 cms and 3 cms radars both are used. 3 cms used for Storm Direction and 10 cms for Cyclone Surveillance. Heat output 500-1000 Kms and range 400-500 Kms. Located at Calcutta, Mumbai, Chennai, Vizag, Paradeep.
   
  Met Satellites.
Polar Orbiting – low orbit 600-1000 kms above earth surface. Carry high resolution radiometers which give IR and Visible imageries. Upper winds and sea surface temp can be derived. NOAA (National Oceanographic Atmospheric Administration) and METEOR.
  Geostationary – approx 36800 kms above earth surface. Same angular velocity as that of the earth and hence scans only a fixed area. 05 needed to cover the globe. INSAT 1 B is geostationary satellite. Pictures can be obtained on command.
Gale warning is issued when mean wind speed exceeds 30 Kts.
Significant weather means – DSTGF2S – Dust storm/ Sandstorm, Squall, Thunderstorm with or without hail, Gale, Freezing precipitation, Frost/ rime. Snow.
  CLOUD AMOUNT
SKC – Sky Clear Fine  – practically clear sky, not used when abnormally warm or cold
FEW – 1-2 oktas Fair – 1-2 oktas
SCT –  3-4 oktas Partly Cloudy – 3-4 oktas
BKN –  5-7 oktas Cloudy – 5-6 oktas
OVC – 8 oktas MOC – 7 oktas
Overcast – 8 oktas
Obscured – sky not discernable
It must be remembered that in case of forecast the condition should prevail for more than half the forecast period.
  TIME VARIATION
Occasional – short spells lasting for fraction of total time
Intermittent – relatively long and frequent spells, together making a major portion of the period
Continuous – more or less incidence of varying intensity during the whole period.
  SPACE VARIATION
Isolated –  at few places – upto 25 %
Scattered – at some places – 26%-50%
Fairly widespread – at many places – 51%-75%
Widespread – at most places – Above 75%
  DENOTE INTENSITY VARIATIONS
  Visibility/ Atmospheric Obscurity.
Fog – Vis less than 1000 mts and RH 75% and more.
  • Dense – 0-50 mts
  • Thick – 51-200 mts
  • Moderate – 201 – 500 mts
  • Light – 501 – 999 mts
Mist – 1000 mts to less than 2000 mts and RH  75% or more
Haze/ Moist haze – 2000 mts – 5000 mts and RH  75% or more
Dust haze/ Smoke haze – Vis less than 5000 mts and RH less than 75%
DRW – strong surface winds speed>20 kts, Vis reducing to less than 5000 mts and RH less than 75%.
Smoke – Combustion particles suspended reducing Vis to 5000 mts or less.
  Duststorms
Light  –               W/V 11 – 21 kts
                          Vis – 500 –less than 1000 mts
Moderate –        W/V 22 – 40 Kts
                          Vis – 200 – less than 500 mts
Severe –            W/V –  greater than 40 Kts
                           Vis – less than 200 mts
Dust storms are usually associated with Cb clouds.
  Winds
Gust – Irregular, transient and frequent oscillations of wind speed and direction. Sudden increase called Gust and sudden decrease called Lull.
Gale – Persistent strong winds mean speed more than 33 Kts. Associated with strong pressure gradients and depressions.
Squall – Sudden and rapid increase of wind speed by at least 3 stages on BF scale, lasting for at least one minute, and actual wind speed going up to 22 Kts.
Hurricane winds – persistent winds speed exceeding 63 Kts.
  Thunderstorm
Light  – faint peals of thunder/ lightening at long intervals.
Moderate – loud peals of thunder and frequent lightening. Moderate to heavy shower with light hail, wind speed 15-40 kts.
Severe – continuous thunder and lightening. Hail may accompany Heavy showers. Wind speed exceeds 40 Kts.
  Rainfall
7.5mm or less – Light rain
7.6 – 35.5 mm – Moderate
35.6 – 64.9 mm – Rather heavy
65 – 84.9 mm – Heavy
85mm or more – Very heavy rainfall
  Degree of expectancy
Will occur – 76-100% (1st degree)
Expected likely – 51-75% (2nd degree)
May occur – 26-50% (3rd degree)
Chance/ risk – 1-25% (4th degree)
  Low Pressure Systems.
Low Pressure Area Less than 17 kts BF Scale   -4
Depression 17-27 kts BF Scale   5,6
Deep Depression 28-33 kts BF Scale 7
Cyclonic Storm 34-47 kts BF Scale 8,9
Severe Cyclonic Storm 48-63 Kts BF Scale 10,11
Severe cyclonic storm with core of hurricane winds 64 kts and more BF Scale 12 and above
  Morphine
Do not give to unconscious patients, sleeping patients or having severe head injuries.
Do not give in case of respiratory embarrassment.
X Morse code =  ——  . . ——
SOS Morse code =  . . .   —  —  —   . . .
Normal body temperature is 98.6 deg F or 37 deg Celsius.
True altitude can only be obtained by temperature correction.
Holding Patterns
Sector 1 is for Parallel entry.
Sector 2 is for Offset entry.
Sector 3 is for Direct entry.

 

 

Navigation Notes (Flight Information Publication)

Arunaksha Nandy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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