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Terms and Definitions For RTR | RTR, FRTOL

Terms and Definitions For RTR/ FRTOL   Advisory Area. It is a designated area within a flight information region where air traffic advisory service is available.   Advisory Route. It is a route within a flight information region along which a traffic advisory service is available.   Note. Air traffic control service provides a much […]


ATS Route Designators and FIR List | ATS Route Designator

DESIGNATORS OF ATS ROUTE AND THEIR USE IN VOICE COMMUNICATION According to ICAO Annexure 11, basic designators of ATS routes shall consist of a maximum of five, in no case exceed six, alpha/ numeric characters in order to be usable by both ground and airborne automation systems. The designator shall indicate the type of the […]


Communication In Aviation | Study Material for CPL, Communication

COMMUNICATION IN AVIATION (STUDY MATERIAL FOR CPL/ ATPL)   Introduction Communication in aviation is mainly achieved by voice modulation of radio waves. The future however, seems to be in data transfer, which can be achieved without using the human voice. Not withstanding that, for the safe movement of air traffic, voice communication is still important. […]


Duct Propagation/ Super Refraction in VHF

Propagation of Radio Waves | Radio Aids Notes

PROPAGATION OF RADIO WAVES   An undisturbed radio wave in space will travel in straight line and at a constant speed. However, the earth’s surface and atmosphere is a mix of uneven mass of solids and liquids, surrounded by a mixture of gases with varying density and even electrical charge (ions). All of these factors […]


Basic Radio Theory | Basic Radio Theory

BASIC RADIO THEORY The study involves application of radio magnetic waves in aid of air navigation.  Before we go into various radio aid equipments let us first study the basic properties of electromagnetic waves. Simplified Transmission and Reception of Radio Waves Radio waves are the product of the changing fields produced by an alternating current. […]


Navigation Keynotes

NAVIGATION KEY NOTES Navigation notes for reference NDB     NDB 190KHz – 450KHz         ADF 190KHz – 1750KHz         Freq. Band Upper Low Frequency             Lower Middle Frequency         Principle Bearing by loop theory           Purpose […]


ATPL/ CPL Navigation Questions(3)

ATPL/ CPL Navigation Questions(3)   THE EARTH   Which of the following statements is true of a great circle? a) It is the path radio waves that travel over the Earth b) The smaller arc of it represents the shortest distance between two points on the Earth c) Its plane passes through the center of […]


Radio Aids Questions For CPL/ ATPL (Viva)

Radio Aids Questions (Viva)   1. NAVIGATION SYSTEMS                        [a] What does the acronym DME stand for? Solution: DME stand for Distance Measuring Equipment [b] How does the DME system work?  Solution: Ground equipments are ground transponders or beacons consist of Antenna, Receiver, transmitters. Airborne equipment named as airborne […]


Air Navigation Question Bank For CPL/ ATPL

Navigation Question Bank                       THE EARTH Which of the following statements is true of a great circle? a) It is the path radio waves that travel over the Earth b) The smaller arc of it represents the shortest distance between two points on the Earth […]


Radio Aids Questions For CPL/ ATPL

Radio Aids Questions                       Ground Direction Finder D/F (including classification of bearings) 1.   What airborne equipment, if any, is required to be fitted in order that a VDF let-down may be flown? A) none B) VOR C) VHF radio D) VOR/DME 2.   The maximum […]