LAPSE RATES, STABILITY AND INSTABILITY (METEOROLOGY NOTES) Before consideration can be given to the formation of clouds and their characteristics, including flying conditions, attention must be paid to the upper air temperature structure and the terminology used to describe it. Firstly, the term temperature lapse rate. A temperature lapse rate is the rate of decrease […]


CEILING AND VISIBILITY (METEOROLOGY NOTES) The CEILING is the height above ground or water of the lowest layer of clouds and is reported as BKN (broken) or OVC (overcast). A minus sign preceding the designation BKN and OVC indicates that the sky cover is thin. BKN and OVC do not constitute a ceiling. If clouds are present […]

Clouds (Meteorology Notes) For CPL/ ATPL | Clouds

CLOUDS (Meteorology Notes) To a pilot knowledgeable in the science of meteorology, clouds are an indication of what is happening in the atmosphere. The location and type of cloud are evidence of such weather phenomena such as fronts, turbulence, thunderstorms, and tell the pilot what type of conditions may be expected during flight. Clouds are […]

Glossary Of Terms in Meteorology (Meteorology Notes)

Meteorology Notes     GLOSSARY Term Definition Types Of Forcast   Nowcasting A short range forecast having a lead time/validity of less than 24 hrs Short range forecasts   Forecasts having a lead time / validity period of 1 to 3 days Medium range forecasts Forecasts having a lead time /validity period of 4 to […]

Winds (Meteorology Notes for CPL/ATPL)

WINDS (Meteorology Notes) Wind is defined as air in horizontal motion. Although the atmosphere has both horizontal and vertical motions of air, the horizontal motions have in general, larger speeds and their measurement both near the ground and at upper levels can be made with a greater degree of accuracy than in the case of […]

Atmospheric Heating (Temperature)

Atmospheric Heating   Temperature Temperature is a measure of heat. Temperature along with pressure is one of the most important variables that affect the atmosphere. The temperature changes that occur on the earth’s surface initiate both air movement and cloud development . Apart from its importance in the generation of weather phenomena, temperature has a […]

ATIS and VOLMET broadcast

ATIS and VOLMET Broadcast Explain ATIS and VOLMET broadcast..( Answer to the question in the Question Bank for RTR (A) exam) Automatic Terminal Information Service, or ATIS, is a continuous broadcast of recorded non control aeronautical information in busier terminal (i.e. airport) areas. ATIS broadcasts contain essential information, such as weather information, which runways are […]

Rule 39C

Rule 39C

METAR/ SPECI (Aircraft General Knowledge) | METAR/ SPECI

METAR/ SPECI What is METAR (Meteorological Aviation Report)? (To prepare for RTR(A) part 2 and also useful info for met paper) Aviation Weather Report (METAR/SPECI) METAR is a format for reporting weather information. A METAR weather report is predominantly used by pilots in fulfillment of a part of a pre-flight weather briefing, and by meteorologists, […]