Airlines Exam


Terms and Definitions For RTR | RTR, FRTOL

Terms and Definitions For RTR/ FRTOL   Advisory Area. It is a designated area within a flight information region where air traffic advisory service is available.   Advisory Route. It is a route within a flight information region along which a traffic advisory service is available.   Note. Air traffic control service provides a much […]


ICAO Flight Plan

ICAO Flight Plan | ICAO Flight Plan For RTR/ FRTOL

ICAO Flight Plan FOR RTR/ FRTOL FLIGHT PLANNING Submission of a Flight Plan Information relative to an intended flight or portion of a flight, to be provided to air traffic service units, shall be in the form of a flight plan. A flight plan shall be submitted prior to operating: Any flight or portion thereof […]


Communication In Aviation | Study Material for CPL, Communication

COMMUNICATION IN AVIATION (STUDY MATERIAL FOR CPL/ ATPL)   Introduction Communication in aviation is mainly achieved by voice modulation of radio waves. The future however, seems to be in data transfer, which can be achieved without using the human voice. Not withstanding that, for the safe movement of air traffic, voice communication is still important. […]


Duct Propagation/ Super Refraction in VHF

Propagation of Radio Waves | Radio Aids Notes

PROPAGATION OF RADIO WAVES   An undisturbed radio wave in space will travel in straight line and at a constant speed. However, the earth’s surface and atmosphere is a mix of uneven mass of solids and liquids, surrounded by a mixture of gases with varying density and even electrical charge (ions). All of these factors […]


SELCAL CHECK ON GROUND AND AIR | SELCAL Check

RT CHECKS/ RT TUNING/ SELCAL CHECKS   RT CALLS: RADIO CHECK PREFLIGHT RADIO CHECK IS DONE ON GROUND BEFORE STARTING THE ENGINES. CALL SIGN IS PLACE NAME AND GROUND/ TOWER. IT IS DONE ON VHF OR ANY OTHER SERVICE AND FREQUENCY AS SPECIFIED IN THE QUESTION. EXPECT A REPLY STRENGTH FIFE AND ASSIGNMENT OF FREQUENCY. […]


Basic Radio Theory | Basic Radio Theory

BASIC RADIO THEORY The study involves application of radio magnetic waves in aid of air navigation.  Before we go into various radio aid equipments let us first study the basic properties of electromagnetic waves. Simplified Transmission and Reception of Radio Waves Radio waves are the product of the changing fields produced by an alternating current. […]


Technical General Questions For CPL | Technical General Questions 2

Technical General Question bank for CPL/ATPL   Technical General Questions The four forces acting on an airplane in flight are lift, weight, thrust, & drag lift, weight, gravity, & thrust lift, gravity, power, & friction By changing the angle of attack of a wing, the pilot can control the airplane’s lift, airspeed, & drag lift, […]


AIRCRAFT TECHNICAL AND GENERAL Questions (Part 2) 2

COMMERCIAL PILOTS LICENSE – AIRCRAFT TECHNICAL GENERAL  Questions Below you will find Part 2 of Technical General Questions Technical General Questions When an aircraft is inverted in flight, fuel starvation of the engine may be prevented by: The carburettor balance duct. The power jet. A stand tube. Carburettor anti-icing is normally provided by: Hot air […]


Navigation Keynotes

NAVIGATION KEY NOTES Navigation notes for reference NDB     NDB 190KHz – 450KHz         ADF 190KHz – 1750KHz         Freq. Band Upper Low Frequency             Lower Middle Frequency         Principle Bearing by loop theory           Purpose […]


Arunaksha Nandy (Technical General questions)

AIRCRAFT TECHNICAL AND GENERAL QUESTIONS (Part 1)

AIRCRAFT TECHNICAL GENERAL QUESTIONS (Part 1) TECHNICAL GENERAL QUESTIONS   Using counter-rotation propellers has the effect of: Cancelling out the gyroscopic and torque effect. Cancelling out the gyroscopic effect and increasing the torque. Increasing the gyroscopic effect and the torque. With an increase in temperature, the service ceiling would: Increase Decrease Remain unaffected. In the choke […]